This post is part of a series of posts taken from Hanbali Acts of Worship, based on Ibn Balbān’s Akhṣar al-Mukhtaṣarāt (The Supreme Synopsis). The comments ‹between chevrons› come from its commentary Kashf al-Mukhaddarāt.
Whoever inserts anything into his body or a body cavity (like the brain and throat ‹and the inside of the vagina or similar things that lead to the stomach›), from any location other than the urethra; swallows mucus after it reaches his mouth; induces vomit and vomits; ejaculates via or releases pre-ejaculate [madhī] from masturbation or non-genital rubbing; releases pre-ejaculate [madhī]; looks repeatedly and ejaculates; intends to break their fast; is cupped or cups someone else – deliberately, voluntarily, and remembering the fast – has broken [the fast] ‹even if he is unaware that it is unlawful›. But ‹the fast is› not ‹broken› if thought leads to orgasm, or water from rinsing the mouth or nostrils enters his throat – even if he did so vigorously, or exceeded three ‹times, even if not done for purification›.
Whoever has intercourse in the daytime of Ramḍān without overwhelming need for sex and the like ‹e.g., a sickness that is improved through sex› must make it up and gives an expiation, categorically [muṭlaqan] ‹whether ignorant, forgetful, mistaken – such as someone who thought it was night and it turned out to be day, compelled or participated voluntarily›. No expiation is required ‹of the woman› when she has an excuse, such as sleeping, compulsion, forgetfulness, and ignorance. But she must make it up.
The expiation is freeing a slave or, in its absence, fasting consecutively for two months. Whoever is unable ‹to fast› can give food to sixty poor. In their absence, the obligation is dropped.
It is offensive: to gather one’s spit and then swallow it; to taste food or suck on mastic that does not dissolve – and the fast is invalid if the taste reaches the throat.
Kissing and its like ‹e.g., hugging, touching, and repeatedly looking; are offensive› for someone who will be aroused. They are unlawful if he thinks he will orgasm.
‹It is unlawful› to suck mastic that dissolves ‹even if one does not swallow one’s saliva›.
Lying, gossiping, tale-bearing, abusing, and the like ‹e.g., extremely ugly sin and disobedience› are emphatically ‹unlawful›.
It is recommended: to hasten breaking one’s fast and to delay one’s pre-fast meal; to say what has been narrated when breaking fast
‹“Allāhuma laka ṣumtu, wa ʿalā rizqika afṭartu, subḥānaka Llāhumma wa bi-ḥamdika, Allāhumma taqabbal minnī, innaka anta s-samīʿu l-alīm”
(“O Allah, for your sake I fasted, and upon your sustenance I break it. O Allah, accept it from me. Indeed, you are the All-Hearing, All-Knowing”)›;
to make up fasts consecutively and immediately. It is unlawful to delay making up fasts without excuse. If one does, then – along with the make up – one must feed one poor person for each day. If someone breaking his fast dies – even if before another ‹Ramadan› – food is also given on his behalf from the top of his estate [i.e. before the estate is distribute to inheritors] and fasting is not performed on his behalf. If someone dies having vowed to perform Ḥajj, a fast, a prayer, or the like ‹e.g., circumambulation or a vowed spiritual retreat [iʿtikāf]›: it is recommended for his guardian to make it up. When there is an estate, it must be done, though the guardian does not have to perform it himself.
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